Season 4 Works Cited

Books used throughout

The Tragedy of Afghanistan: A First-Hand Account, Raja Anwar, 1988.

Afghanistan-Washington's Secret War (2nd edition), Philip Bonosky, 2001.

Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism (2nd edition), John Cooley, 2002.

Forbidden Truth: U.S.-Taliban Secret Oil Diplomacy and the Failed Hunt for Bin Laden,  Jean-Charles Brisard and Guillaume Dasquie, 2002.

Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History, George Crile, 2003.

Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001, Steve Coll, 2004.

Our Own Private Bin Laden, dir. Samira Goetschel, 2006.

The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America, Peter Dale Scott, 2007.

Descent into Chaos: The US and the Disaster in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, Ahmed Rashid, 2008.

Invisible History: Afghanistan’s Untold Story, Elizabeth Gould and Paul Fitzgerald, 2009.

Afgansty: The Russians in Afghanistan 1979-89,  Rodric Braithwaite, 2011.

The Wrong Enemy: America in Afghanistan, 2001-2014, Carlotta Gall, 2014.

No Good Men Among the Living: America, the Taliban, and the War through Afghan Eyes, Anand Gopal, 2014.

A Kingdom of Their Own: The Family Karzai and the Afghan Disaster, Joshua Partlow, 2017.

The Afghanistan Papers: A Secret History of the War, Craig Whitlock, 2021.

EPISODE 2 - Bleeders and Dealers

British Plots Against Afghanistan, Naftula Khalfin, 1981.

Lessons from the 1931 Constitution of Nadir Khan: Religious Inclusion and Reform,” Palwasha L. Kakar and Julia Schiwal, 2021.

Field-Marshal Sir Neville Chamberlain,” Asian Review, 1909.

The Helmand Valley Project in Afghanistan,” USAID, 1983.

Little America: The War Within the War for Afghanistan, Rajiv Chandrasekaran, 2011.

Afghan Request For Aid Raises Further Problems,” State Department report, 1959.

Afghanistan: Coup at the Crossroads,” TIME Magazine, 1973.

Telegram From the Embassy in Afghanistan to the Departments of State and Defense, the National Security Agency, and the United States Pacific Command,” FRUS, 1977–1980.

Soviets Say CIA Trained Afghan Rebels in Pakistan,” Washington Post, 1980.

The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia, Lutz Kleveman, 2007.

The Devil's Chessboard: Allen Dulles, the CIA, and the Rise of America's Secret Government, David Talbot, 2015.

Review: The Nixon Doctrine and U.S. Relations with the Republic of Afghanistan, 1973-1978: Stuck in the Middle with Daoud,” Robert Rakove (H-Diplo), 2017.

A Needed 'White Paper',” Abel Baker, New York Times, 1980.

Prelude to Terror: The Rogue CIA and the Legacy of America's Private Intelligence Network, Joseph Trento, 2005.

Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski, National Security Archive, 1997.

Culture and Customs of Afghanistan, Hafizullah Emadi, 2005.

The Assassination of Ambassador Dubs,” U.S. State Department, 2019.

The Mysterious Kidnapping of an American Ambassador Still Haunts the State Department,” The Washingtonian, 2017.

Soviets Sign Treaty With Afghanistan,” Washington Post, 1978.

EPISODE 3 - The Trap

The KGB in Afghanistan,” Vasiliy Mitrokin, 2002.

Interview with Zbigniew Brzezinski on Afghanistan,” Le Nouvel Observateur, 1998.

“‘There Really Was An ‘Afghan Trap,’” Jonathan Haslam, H-Diplo, 2022.

Massoud books: reviewed, Studies in Intelligence [CIA publication], 2022.

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, the Messiah of Darkness,” Paul Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Gould, HuffPost, 2010.

The Outlaw Bank: A Wild Ride into the Secret Heart of BCCI, Jonathan Beaty and S.C. Gwynne, 1993.

False Profits: The Inside Story of BCCI, The World’s Most Corrupt Financial Empire by Peter Truell and Larry Gurwin, 1992.

Afghan Guerrilla Says Soviet Has Greatly Expanded Adviser Forces,” New York Times, 1979.

Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President, Jimmy Carter, 1995.

The Bush-bin Laden Connection,” Andrew Wheat, Texas Observer, 2001.

The Barreling Bushes,” Kevin Phillips, Los Angeles Times, 2001.

Mystery Man: James Bath,” Craig Unger, Salon, 2004.

Frankenstein the CIA created,” Jason Burke, The Guardian, 1999.

Kabul in Winter: Life Without Peace in Afghanistan, Ann Jones, 2006.

"Lessons of the Grain Embargo,” Foreign Affairs, 1980.

Address by President Carter on the State of the Union Before a Joint Session of Congress,” 1980.

Afghans seethe under Soviet heel,” Christian Science Monitor, 1980.

In the Wake of Afghanistan” (Editorial), Washington Post , 1980.

Afghans' Hearsay War Often Deceives the Press,” Washington Post , 1980.

'Grim' Nickname Fits Afghan Tales of Torture, Murder,” Washington Post 1979.

The Carter Transformation of Our Strategic Doctrine,” Memo from Zbiegniew Breziznski to Carter, 1980.

Memo to the Soviet Internationalist-Soldier, 1982

CBS News Head Denies Fakery Charges,” New York Times, 1989.

Biased Afghan Coverage at CBS,” FAIR, 1989.

Dan Rather: more Soviet killing looms in Afghanistan,” Christian Science Monitor, 1980.

The Kerala massacre (Editorial),” Christian Science Monitor, 1980.

Massacre Described by Afghan Refugees,” Associated Press, 1980.

Warriors of Disinformation: American Propaganda, Soviet Lies, and the Winning of the Cold War: an Insider's Account, Alvin A. Snyder, 1995.

Radio Free Kabul: rallying the Afghan resistance,” Christian Science Monitor, 1982.

Clandestine Radio Broadcasting: A Study of Revolutionary and Counterrevolutionary Electronic Communication, Lawrence C. Soley and John Nichols, 1987.

Request from Committee for a Free Afghanistan to President Reagan, 1985.

Blowback? What Blowback? Charlie Wilson's adventures in Afghanistan,” Molly Ivins, Texas Observer, 2003.

Pakistani Dismisses $400 Million In Aid Offered by U.S. as 'Peanuts',” New York Times, 1980.

Knights of Malta (and U.S.) Picking New Chief,” New York Times, 1980.

‘I Could Live With That’: How the CIA Made Afghanistan Safe for the Opium Trade,” CounterPunch, 2020.

Restocking the Chemical Arsenal,” Wayne Biddle, New York Times, 1981.

Red Kabul Revisited,” The Guardian, 2003.

Portion of 'Yellow Rain' Riddle Is Linked to Bees, Panel Say,” Washington Post, 1983.

EPISODE 4 - They’re Yours Now

Inside the Afghan Talks,” Selig Harrison, Foreign Policy, 1988.

Flight 007: The Rest of the Story,” Alvin A. Snyder, Washington Post , 1996.

The Target Is Destroyed: What Really Happened To Flight 007 And What America Knew, Seymour Hersh, 1986.

President Reagan’s Address to the Nation After the Downing of KAL 007, 1983.

He was the CIA whiz kid in ‘Charlie Wilson’s War.’ His new book offers advice for the US in Ukraine,” Associated Press, 2023.

The U.N. and Afghanistan,” Fred Halliday, New York Times, 1981.

A.Q. Khan Nuclear Chronology,” Carnegie Endowment for Peace, 2005.

Pakistan Frees Nuclear Dealer in Snub to U.S.,” New York Times, 2009.

Heroin, Taliban and Pakistan,” Financial Times, 2001.

U.S. Declines to Probe Afghan Drug Trade,” Washington Post , 1990.

The Afghanistan Drug Lords: Administration subsidized growing drug industry in Southwest Asia,” Alfred McCoy, Christic Institute Newsletter, 1991.

The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, Alfred McCoy, 2003.

Anatomy of a Victory: CIA’s Covert Afghan War,” Washington Post, 1992.

Gorbachev Announces Reduction of 6,000 In Afghanistan Force,” Washington Post, 1986.

Afghanistan | Ferocious Fight: Soviets mount a big offensive,” TIME Magazine, 1985.

Clair George, Spy and Iran-Contra Figure, Dies at 81,” New York Times, 2011.

Memorandum of Conversation between CPSU Secretary for International Relations Anatoly Dobrynin and Socialist Unity Party (SED) General Secretary Erich Honecker in Berlin,” 1987.

Soviet Sets May 15 As Goal to Start Afghanistan Exit,” New York Times, 1988.

Soviets Say 89,000 Troops Are Home,” New York Times, 1989.

Soviets, Guerillas May Meet,” Washington Post, 1988.

Major Soviet Convoy Leaves Afghan Capital,” Washington Post, 1989.

President Reagan’s Statement on the Ninth Anniversary of the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, 1988.

EPISODE 5 - We Can Live With That

Inside Najibullah’s Regime,” Washington Post, 1989.

“Najibullah: Afghan Leader With Nine Lives,” Steve Le Vine, Newsday, 1989.

Afghanistan after the Occupation: Examining the Post‐Soviet Withdrawal and the Najibullah Regime It Left Behind, 1989–1992,” Shane A. Smith, 2020.

Legacy Of The Prophet: Despots, Democrats, And The New Politics Of Islam, Anthony Shadid, 2001.

“Anarchy in the USSR,” Anthony DeCurtis, Rolling Stone (July 12-26), 1990.

Collapse: The Fall of the Soviet Union, Vladislav Zubok, 2021.

Massive Aid Plan Outlined by Soviet,” Washington Post, 1991.

Afghan Guerilla Assault on Jalalabad Stalls,” Washington Post, 1989.

“Soviet: Afghan Rebels Aid Unrest,” Steve Le Vine, Newsday, 1990.

“Najibullah Regains Control of Kabul,” Steve Le Vine, Newsday, 1990.

Blood-Stained Hands: Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan’s Legacy of Impunity,” Human Rights Watch, 2005.

The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan,” Alan J. Kuperman, Political Science Quarterly, 1999.

Of the People, By the Warlords,” New York Times, 2002.

The False Prophet: Rabbi Meir Kahane—From FBI Informant to Knesset Member, Robert I. Friedman, 1990.

Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam, Robert Dreyfuss, 2005.

First Blood: Was Meir Kahane’s murder al-Qaida’s earliest attack on U.S. soil?,” Peter Lance, Tablet, 2010.

Confession of El-Sayyid Nosair, 2005.

Muslim Acquitted in Kahane Murder; Found Guilty on Weapons Charge,” Washington Post, 1991.

"Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years After the World Trade Center," Testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee, 1998.

A Manufactured Jihad Against The West: The 1993 World Trade Center Bombing,” Adam Fitzgerald, 2022.

The World Trade Center Bombers (1993)” from Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons, John V. Parachini, 2000.

Taliban (2nd edition), Ahmed Rashid, 2010.

How The Taliban Went From International Pariah To U.S. Peace Partner In Afghanistan,” RFERL, 2020.

No Peace in the Pipeline,” Washington Post, 1998.

Women’s Fury Toward Taliban Stalls Pipeline,” Washington Post, 1998.

Afghanistan Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996,” US State Department, 1997.

How Opium Profits the Taliban,” Gretchen Peters, US Institute for Peace, 2009.

The Liaison: She Spoke for Taliban And Now Pays a Price,” Alessandra Stanley, New York Times, 2001.

New Breed of Roughnecks Battles Over Caspian Oil Fields,” James Risen, Los Angeles Times, 1998.

Gas Pipeline Bounces Between Agendas,” Washington Post, 1998.

Prelude To Terror,” Stanley Reed, Businessweek, 2004.

EPISODE 6 - Ground Zeroes

The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America, James Bamford, 2008.

The Counter-Terrorist,” Lawrence Wright, New Yorker, 2002.

The Cell: Inside the 9/11 Plot, and Why the FBI and CIA Failed to Stop It, John Miller and Michael Stone with Chris Mitchell, 2002. [1999 Esquire version]

American Journeys to Jihad,” Sara Daly and William Rosenau, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, 2010.

U.S.-Born Suspect in Bombing Plots: Zealous Causes and Civic Roles,” New York Times, 1993.

Former Top U.S. Aides Seek Caspian Gusher,” Washington Post, 1997.

Top guns try to polish Azerbaijan policy,” United Press International, 1997.

Militants face death after Egyptian trial,” The Guardian, 1999.

Egyptian doctor emerges as terror mastermind,” CNN, 2005.

Afghanistan: The Massacre in Mazar-i Sharif,” Human Rights Watch, 1998.

Taliban Massacre Based on Ethnicity,” Washington Post, 1998.

“Iran Seeks Clarity on Killing of its Diplomats in Mazar-e-Sharif in 1998,” Afghanistan International, 2022 & 2023.

Bin Laden Linked to Embassy Blast By an Ex-Soldier,” New York Times, 2000.

The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, Lawrence Wright, 2006.

Bill Clinton and the Missed Opportunities to Kill Osama Bin Laden,” Washington Post, 2016.

U.S. Urges His Protectors to Turn Over Suspect in Embassy Blasts,” New York Times, 1999.

U.S. Froze $254 Million In Taliban Cash in 1999,” Washington Post, 2001.

Focus of 9/11 Families’ Lawsuit Against Saudi Arabia Turns to a Saudi Student Who May Have Been a Spy,” ProPublica, 2023.

The FBI kept secret for 20 years a crucial link between Saudi Arabia and the 9/11 hijackers,” Mattathias Schwartz, Business Insider, 2021.

U.S. failure to retaliate for USS Cole attack rankled then — and now,” Michael Isikoff, NBC News, 2010.

U.S. hostage [Guillermo Sobrero] confirmed dead,” BBC, 2001.

Statement on Taliban Sanctions/Passage of U.N.S.C. Resolution 1333, United Nations Press Office, 2000.

Condi and the Boys,” Russell Baker, New York Review of Books, 2008.

Diplomats Met With Taliban on Bin Laden,” Washington Post, 2001.

Directorate S: The CIA and America’s Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Steve Coll, 2018.

Bush at War, Bob Woodward, 2002.

At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA, George Tenet, 2007.

A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq and the Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies, James Bamford, 2004.

USA v. Mohamed: Transcript from Hearing Before Judge Sand, 2000.

President George W. Bush Sept. 20 Address to Joint Session of Congress, 2000.

EPISODE 7 - Guns of the Patriots

Rebel With Long Career of Picking Fights (and Sides),” New York Times, 2001.

The Death Convoy Of Afghanistan,” John Barry, Newsweek, 2002.

As possible Afghan war-crimes evidence removed, U.S. silent,” McClatchy Newspapers, 2008.

UN reports slaughter of captured Taliban soldiers,” Irish Times, 1997.

Dasht-i-Leili Massacre FOIA, Part I & Part II, 2002-2008.

Study Hints at Mass Killing of the Taliban,” Carlotta Gall, New York Times, 2002.

U.S. Inaction Seen After Taliban P.O.W.’s Died,” James Risen, New York Times, 2009.

Satellite Imagery and Possible Mass Graves in Sheberghan, Afghanistan,” American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2009.

At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA, George Tenet, 2007.

September 16 “We’re at war” memo by George Tenet, 2001.

In the Line of Fire: A Memoir, Pervez Musharraf, 2006.

Directorate S: The CIA and America’s Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Steve Coll, 2018.

CIA Led Way With Cash Handouts,” Washington Post, 2002.

Relentless Strike: The Secret History of Joint Special Operations Command, Sean Naylor, 2015.

Afghanistan, Chechnya color Russian terror debate,” CNN, 2001.

Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet, James Mann, 2004.

U.S. Warned Not to Strike During Ramadan,” Washington Post, 2001.

Afghan Families Flee to Tent City,” Associated Press, 2001.

Brokaw May Have Been Exposed to Anthrax,” ABC News, 2001.

Haq execution a blow to anti-Taliban efforts,” CNN, 2001.

Shadow Government Is at Work in Secret,” Barton Gellman and Susan Schmidt, Washington Post, 2002.

Cheney Involved Despite Remote Location,” ABC News, 2001.

Northern Alliance Claims It Has Captured Mazar-i-Sharif,” New York Times, 2001.

The Getaway,” Seymour Hersh, New Yorker, 2002.

Supplying the Taliban: Pakistan Ended Aid to Taliban Only Hesitantly,” New York Times, 2001.

Talks in Bonn End With Deal On Leadership For Afghans,” New York Times, 2001.

Karzai acknowledges CIA payments,” Washington Post, 2013.

The Karzai years: From hope to recrimination,” BBC, 2014.

Ann Jones on the Road to Taliban Land,” TomDispatch, 2006.

U.S. ID's Bin Laden's Voice Near Tora Bora,” ABC News, 2001.

U.S. Failure to Capture Bin Laden Is Debated,” New York Times, 2004.

The Man Behind Bin Laden,” Lawrence Wright, New Yorker, 2002.

EPISODE 8 - Sons of Liberty

Transcript of George W. Bush’s ‘Axis of Evil’ speech,” 2002.

A Woman Among Warlords: The Extraordinary Story of an Afghan Who Dared to Raise Her Voice, Malalai Joya, 2009.

At the Defense Department, Duty Calls,” Washington Post, 2001.

“Afghanistan asks for additional troops,” Steven Komarow, USA Today, 2001.

Brother of Afghan Leader Said to Be Paid by C.I.A.,” New York Times, 2009.

Despite Doubt, Karzai Brother Retains Power,” New York Times, 2010.

“Cultural Frictions Grow: Time for US to Leave, Afghans Grumble,” Associated Press, 2002.

‘The forever prisoner’: Abu Zubaydah’s drawings expose the US’s depraved torture policy,” Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, 2023.

Rumsfeld October 16 memo on the Global War on Terror, 2003.

American Viceroy,” Jon Lee Anderson, New Yorker, 2005.

Full Bin Laden Tape to be Aired,” ABC News, 2002.

Pakistani Scientist Admits That He Passed On Nuclear Secrets,” New York Times, 2004.

“Pakistan made ‘Major Non-Nato Ally,’”Al Jazeera, 2004.

15 Afghan Candidates to File Vote Complaints With Panel,” Carlotta Gall, New York Times, 2004.

Bin Laden: Al Qaeda motivated to strike U.S. again,” CNN, 2004.

For Cheney, Tarnish From Halliburton,” Dana Milbank, Washington Post, 2002.

The Path Taken By Halliburton To Reach a Deal In Asbestos Suits,” New York Times, 2002.

Halliburton's KBR unit hid contract info-US report,” Reuters, 2007.

Halliburton's Army: How a Well-Connected Texas Oil Company Revolutionized the Way America Makes War, Pratap Chatterjee (with Fariba Nawa), 2009.

The Other War,” Seymour Hersh, New Yorker, 2004.

Poppy Fields Are Now a Front Line in Afghan War,” James Risen, New York Times, 2007.

WikiLeaks: Karzai's brother denies drug dealing, remembers Chicago,” CNN, 2010.

U.N. Reports That Taliban Is Stockpiling Opium,” New York Times, 2008.

Afghanistan: Killing and Torture by U.S. Predate Abu Ghraib: After Two Years, U.S. Forces Still Not Prosecuted for Homicides,” Human Rights Watch, 2005.

CIA detention practices escape scrutiny,” Dana Priest, NBC News, 2005.

Afghans Riot After Deadly Crash by U.S. Military Truck,” Carlotta Gall, New York Times, 2005.

Jonathan Idema, Con Man and Afghan Bounty Hunter, Dies at 55,” New York Times, 2012.

Afghanistan: the Miserable Performance Of The Mainstream Media,” CounterPunch, 2021.

Afghanistan 2006,” Peter Bergen, The Nation, 2006.

EPISODE 9 - Peace Walker

Cheney unhurt after deadly blast at Afghan base,” NBC News, 2007.

The curious sacking of Gen McKiernan,” The Guardian, 2009.

Pentagon Worries Led to Command Change,” Washington Post, 2009.

Camp Nama: British personnel reveal horrors of secret US base in Baghdad,” The Guardian, 2013.

US commander in Afghanistan gets more authority,” Reuters, 2010.

Our Man: Richard Holbrooke and the End of the American Century, George Packer, 2019.

Crossing Zero: The AfPak War at the Turning Point of American Empire, Elizabeth Gould and Paul Fitzgerald, 2011.

The Operators: The Wild and Terrifying Inside Story of America's War in Afghanistan, Michael Hastings, 2012. [“The Runaway General” profile of Gen. MacChrystal was originally published in Rolling Stone in June 2010]

Obama Tours Afghan War Zone,” CBS News, 2008.

Mesmerized by COIN,” Robert Dreyfuss, The American Conservative, 2010.

Accused of Drug Ties, Afghan Official Worries U.S.,” New York Times, 2009.

Afghanistan says U.S. airstrike hit wedding party,” International Herald Tribune (NYT), 2008.

Troubles at Afghan Bank Jolt Financial System,” New York Times, 2010.

Karzai brother, others still owe millions to Kabul Bank - Afghan watchdog,” Reuters, 2014.

Afghan Offensive Is New War Model,” New York Times, 2010.

Lara Logan Slams Michael Hastings, Rolling Stone Over McChrystal Article,” HuffPost, 2010.

A Magazine Back on a Roll,” New York Times, 2010.

Hamid Karzai's brother assassinated in southern Afghanistan,” The Guardian, 2011.

“Ismail Khan, Herat, and Iranian Influence,” Thomas Johnson, Strategic Insights, 2004.

How a Single Spy Helped Turn Pakistan Against the United States,” Mark Mazetti, New York Times Magazine, 2013.

The Killing of Osama Bin Laden, Seymour Hersh, 2016. [Original article published in London Review of Books in 2011]

Tequila, Painted Pearls, and Prada — How the CIA Helped Produce 'Zero Dark Thirty',” VICE, 2015.

Pakistan likely knew of Osama bin Laden’s presence, admits former spy chief,” Washington Post, 2015.

Hillary Clinton Testimony on Afghanistan Before Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 2011.

Former Marine Sniper Punished in Scandal Wins Again in Court,”, 2018.

Panetta Says He Was Not the Target of an Attack,” New York Times, 2012.

Obama heralds formal end of war in Afghanistan after 13 years,” Associated Press, 2014.

Taliban rival claims Kabul blast that kills at least 15, including two U.S. troops,” Washington Post, 2013.

Daily State Department Press Briefing - December 14, 2010.

EPISODE 10 - The Phantom Pain

'Butcher of Kabul' pardoned in Afghan peace deal,” The Guardian, 2016.

U.N. lifts sanctions on notorious Afghan warlord,” Reuters, 2017.

Hekmatyar returns to Kabul after 20 years in hiding,” Al Jazeera, 2017.

Taliban publish letter calling on US to start Afghan peace talks,” The Guardian, 2018.

The Return of the Taliban: Afghanistan after the Americans Left, Hassan Abbas, 2023.

Taliban Leader Mullah Omar Died in 2013, Afghans Declare,” New York Times, 2015.

US, Taliban to sign deal aimed at bringing peace to Afghanistan,” Al Jazeera, 2020.

US 'mother of all bombs' killed 92 Isis militants, say Afghan officials,” The Guardian, 2017.

Trump Drops the Mother of All Bombs on Afghanistan,” Robin Wright, New Yorker, 2017.

'Right time' to use huge bomb in Afghanistan - U.S. general,” Reuters, 2017.

Afghanistan’s Rising Civilian Death Toll Due to Airstrikes, 2017-2020,” Neta C. Crawford, Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, 2020.

The Secret History of the U.S. Diplomatic Failure in Afghanistan,” Steve Coll and Adam Entous, New Yorker, 2021.

Exclusive: The Untold Story of How Afghan President Ashraf Ghani Fled the Country,” Hasht-e-Subh Daily, 2021.

U.S. drone strike kills Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in Afghanistan,” NBC News, 2022.

Afghan capital hit by attacks near ex-PM Hekmatyar's office, Pakistan Embassy,” Reuters, 2022.

Afghanistan’s Warlords Prepare Their Comeback,” Foreign Policy, 2022.

A Special Relationship,” Andrew Cockburn, Harper’s, 2016.

As Afghans Suffer, U.S. Stalls on Plan to Return Central Bank Funds,” In These Times, 2022.

Taliban mark 1st year back in power, but for many Afghans there’s nothing to celebrate,” NBC News, 2022.